Turkish-Condominium-Law-English

Turkish-Condominium-Law-English

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Turkish Condominium Law
Law. No. 634 Passed on 23 June 1965
Text updated according to the modifications made by Laws:
No. 2814, dated 12.01.1969
No. 2814, dated 14.04.1983
No. 3227, dated 25.06.1985
Law Decree/431 dated 13.02.1991
No. 3770, dated 11.02.1992
No. 5378, dated 07.07.2005
No. 5627, dated 02.05.2007
No. 5711, dated 28.11.2008
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CHAPTER I
General Provisions
A) Condominium ownership and construction servitude
I – General Rule
ARTICLE 1.- Independent ownership rights may be established, under the provisions
of this law, by the owner or the co-owners of a real estate on the portions of a completed
building such as floor, apartment, office, shop, store, cellar, warehouse which are
available to be used separately and independently.
Servitude rights may be established, under this law, by the owner or the co-owners of a
building plot on the portions of a building being built or to be built in future and
answering to the characteristics indicated above in the first paragraph to be taken as a
basis for the condominium ownership to be established after the building has been
completed.
II – Definitions
ARTICLE 2. – For the purpose of this law the following terms shall have the meanings
indicated below:
a) “Main property” the whole of real property on which condominium ownership is
established, “main building” only the portion constituting the main construction,
“independent division” the portions of the main property each of which is available
to be used independently and separately and which may be owned independently
under this law, “annexes” the places which are situated outside the independent
divisions and are directly allocated to that division, “condominium ownership” the
property right established on the independent divisions and “condominium owner”
the holder of the said right.
b) “Common premises” the places which remain outside the independent divisions of
the main property and serve for protection and joint use and “right of use” the right
of using these places belonging jointly to the condominium owners in their capacity
of co-owners.
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c) (Amended: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art 1.) “Construction servitude” the servitude
established under the provisions of this law by the owner or the co-owners of a
building plot for the independent premises of one or more buildings which are being
built or will be built on the plot to be taken as a basis for condominium ownership
in the future and “holder of a construction servitude” the holder of the said
servitude;”
d) “Building plot share” collective ownership share on the building plot to be allocated
to the independent divisions according to the principle stated in this law.
e) “Agreement” the authenticated deed concerning the establishment of condominium
ownership or construction servitude.
III – Character of condominium ownership and construction servitude
ARTICLE 3. – Condominium ownership is a private ownership related to the building
plot share and to the common premises of the main property.
(Amended second parag.: 14/11/2007-5711/art.1) Condominium ownership and
construction servitude are established by clearly indicating, in line with the collective
ownership principles, the building plot share which has been allocated in its project
proportionally with the values calculated according to the location and size of each
independent division of main property which is subject to this ownership. If the building
plot shares have not been allocated proportionally with the shares of independent
divisions, each condominium owner or construction servitude holder can apply to the
court for re-arrangement of building plot shares. The building plot share which has been
allocated to each independent division according to this paragraph shall not be able to
be changed due to future increases or decreases in the values of said divisions. The
provision of Article 44 is reserved.
(Amended third parag: 14/11/2007-5711/art.1) Construction servitude is a servitude
type which depends on building plot share and it is, according to the conditions set forth
in this Law, converted into the condominium ownership upon request of building plot
owner or collective owners who have construction servitude or one of them from land
register office after occupancy certificate is received.
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IV – Common premises
ARTICLE 4. – The subject of common premises may be determined by agreement. The
following places and things are, in any case, deemed to be common premises under this
law.
a) The foundations and main walls, cross beams, columns, and curtain walls which
constitute the load bearing system and other elements of load bearing system,
common walls separating independent divisions, ceiling and floors, yards, main
entrance doors, entrances, stair cases, elevators, stair-heads, corridors and common
W.C.’s situated therein, door-keepers’ apartments or rooms, common laundries and
drying rooms, common coal-cellars and garages, recesses and closed places
allocated to the protection of electric, water and gas supply meters situated outside
the independent divisions, central heating rooms, wells and cisterns, common water
tanks and underground shelters.
b) Sewers and garbage ducts situated outside the division of each condominium owner,
and central heating, water, gas and electric installations, common networks and
antennas for telephone, radio and television, air conditioning installations.
c) Roofs, chimneys, common terraces situated on the roofs, gutters and fire escapes.
The things and places not included among the above but indispensable for the common
protection and use are deemed to be “common premises”.
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B) Connections
I- Connections between the independent divisions and shares of plot :
ARTICLE 5. – In case of transfer of condominium ownership or its conveyance by
inheritance, the building plot share, which is attached thereto, shall be transferred at the
same time. The building plot share shall not be transferred or conveyed by inheritance
separately from the condominium ownership or the construction servitude, neither can it
be encumbered by another right.
No building plot share may be left in the main property without being a condominium
ownership or a construction servitude being established in favour thereof.
(1) As for the second article of the law no 5711 dated 14/11/2007 the expression “cross
beams, columns, and curtain walls which constitute the load bearing system and other
elements of load bearing system” has been added after the expression “The
foundations and main walls” and has been entered into the text.
The rights encumbering condominium ownership shall also encumber the building plot
share, automatically.
No servitude shall be established on a building plot on which there are construction
servitudes, if they are not compatible with the said servitudes.
The rights registered or entered in the folio of the main property in the Register prior to the
institution of condominium ownership in the main property shall in principle encumber
automatically condominium ownership in proportion to the building plot share.
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II – Connections between independent premises and annexes and common premises
ARTICLE 6. – Annexes such as coal cellars, water tanks, garages, recesses for gas, water
and electric supply meters and W.C.’s situated outside independent divisions but directly
allocated to the said divisions shall be deemed to be complementary parts of the independent
division to which they belong and the owner of the said division shall become the sole owner
of the said annexes.
Annexes shall be entered in the column of (statements) of the condominium ownership log
and those situated outside the ground on which is erected the main building shall be separately
indicated on the cadastral plan or the map of the land Registry.
No servitudes may be established on independent division, if they are incompatible with
condominium ownership and with the rights of other condominium owners.
In case of transfer, encumbrance or lease of independent divisions, the annexes and common
premises shall also be automatically transferred, encumbered or leased.
C )End of co-ownership and right of pre-emption
I – End of co-ownership
ARTICLE 7. – No extinction of co-ownership shall be required for an immovable on which
condominium ownership or construction servitude has been established.
Legal action or proceedings may be taken in connection with independent divisions as in the
case of an independent property. The extinction of co-ownership may be required for such
divisions.
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II – Right of pre-emption
ARTICLE 8. – (Amended first parag.: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art 3.) In case of sale of an
independent division of a property on which the regime of condominium ownership has been
established or building plot share on which construction servitude has been tied up, the other
condominium owners shall have no rights of pre-emption.
Should one of the joint owners of an independent division sell his share to another person, the
other joint owners shall be entitled to exercise their rights of pre-emption.
A provision contrary to this ARTICLE may be included in the agreement.
D) Scope of application of general provisions
ARTICLE 9. – In the absence of any entry in the condominium ownership log or of
construction servitude or in the agreement concluded between the condominium owners or in
the management plan or in this law, conflicts arising from condominium ownership shall be
settled according to the provisions of the Civil Code or of other relevant laws.
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CHAPTER II
Establishment of Condominium Ownership and Construction Servitude
A) General rule
ARTICLE 10. – Condominium ownership and construction servitude shall begin with an
authenticated deed and an entry in the Land register.
No condominium ownership shall be established only on one or several divisions of an
immovable, prior to the main property being put under the regime of condominium
ownership.
(Amended third parag,: 14/11/2007-5711/ art 3) Same type of adjacent independent
divisions on the same floor or the floors or divisions such as a hotel, business or commercial
place which form completeness with respect to economic or usage purposes can be registered
as a single independent division into condominium registration. To be able to make such a
registration, it is necessary to have given the appropriate modification document and
occupancy certificate to the Title Deeds Registry Office.
Condominium ownership shall be registered according to an authenticated deed drawn up by
the keeper of the land of register or by court judgment rendered according to the following
paragraph.
When a suit is filed for extinguishing co-ownership of a property suitable for placing under
the regime of condominium ownership, if one of the heirs or the co-owners demands that the
division be made by establishing condominium ownership and allocating independent
divisions, the judge may decide that the immovable in question be put under the regime of
condominium ownership on the ground of the documents indicated in ARTICLE 12 and the
independent divisions be allocated separately to each co-owner by balancing the shares.
(Inserted parag,: 14/11/2007-5711/ art 3) Independent divisions which have been assigned
to the common benefit or whose income is used to meet common expenses are registered in
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the condominium ownership registration by writing in their owner part “the numbers of
independent divisions” which make benefit of them. This issue shall be shown in the part of
statements of independent divisions.
B)Register of condominium ownership
ARTICLE 11. –(Amended: 14/11/2007-5711/ art 4) Condominium ownership and
construction servitude shall be registered into the condominium ownership registration which
shall be kept according to the Title Deeds Registry Rules. Unless otherwise is expressed in
this Law, the general provisions regarding registration shall also be applied to the registration
transactions to be made according to the condominium ownership registration.
The condominium ownership and construction servitude at the places whose land registry has
not been made yet shall be registered in the Condominium Ownership Minute Book to be kept
distinctly according to the formula specified in Title Deeds Rules.
C)Establishment of condominium ownership
I – Formalities and documents
ARTICLE 12. – (Amended : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 5)
For establishment of condominium ownership, regarding conversion of main property to
the condominium ownership, owner or all stakeholders of that real estate have to apply to the
title deeds registry office with below mentioned documents:
a) The layout plan which shows the location of buildings, occupancy certificate, and
architectural project which has been made by the designer architect of project, which has been
signed by the owner or all stakeholders of main property, and which has been approved by the
relevant public authorities to clearly show the exterior facades and interior divisions of
building or buildings, measures of independent divisions, annexes and common places,
building plot shares of independent divisions proportional with the values calculated
according to their locations and areas, and building construction area of independent
divisions.
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b) A management plan which has been prepared according to the usage style of
independent divisions, if there are multiple structures, according to characteristics of buildings
within the framework of the provisions of Article 28, and which has been signed by the owner
or owners who constitute the condominium ownership.
c) The list in notarized document form which has been signed by the owner or all
stakeholders of main property to show building plot share of each independent division, its
type such as flat, residence or business place, their sequence numbers beginning from one,
and annexes if exist.
II – Agreement and registration
ARTICLE 13. – (Amended first parag.: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art.5) After the Land Registrar
has been satisfied that the documents filed are complete and drawn up according to
regulations and procedures and that the petitioners have legal ability, he will draw up an
official agreement regarding the establishment of condominium ownership or construction
servitude. This agreement is deemed to be an application for registration at the same time.
(Amended second parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 6) The statement “Property of this real
estate has been converted into condominium ownership” should be written in the ownership
cell of condominium ownership log page in which construction servitude is registered if the
servitude status is changed to condominium ownership, or of title deed registry log page in
which main property is registered if the condominium ownership is directly established during
arrangement of agreement so that the page is closed to the transactions other than the
servitude rights to be established against and in favor of main property and each independent
division which is subject to condominium ownership is registered into a distinct page of
condominium ownership log showing building plot share, plate, block, parcel, book, and page
number of that division; in addition, the connection between logs is established by writing
book and page numbers of independent divisions in condominium ownership log onto general
log page where main property is registered.
(Amended third parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 6) The registry record of the rights which are
currently included in the page of main property, excluding servitude rights, shall be
transferred into the page of independent divisions in condominium ownership log. After the
ownership of main property is converted to condominium ownership the servitude rights to be
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established against and in favor of main property shall also be registered in the page of main
property in title deeds registry log and condominium ownership shall be indicated in the
statements cell of condominium ownership log.
Each independent division entered in the Register of condominium ownership shall acquire
the character of an independent property and shall take the no. carried by the said section in
the certified plan.
(Amended: 13/4/1983 – 2814/ art.5) A certified copy of the project concerning his own
independent division from the project specified in subparagraph (a) of ARTICLE 12 shall also
be delivered to condominium owner upon his request in addition to scaled document of title.
D) Institution of construction servitude
ARTICLE 14. – (Amended first parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 7) The building plot owner
or stakeholders who desire to establish construction servitude on a building plot on which any
building has not been constructed or its building has not been completed and to register this
plot in the title deeds registry office have to submit their demand with the project and plan
which have been prepared according to the subparagraph (a) of Article 12, management plan
specified in line with the subparagraph (b) and list mentioned in the subparagraph (c). In
transition to condominium ownership a distinctly prepared management plan shall not be
required.
Construction servitude may be established on this building plot only by indicating in the
column of (statements) of the Register where the plot is entered the building plot share to be
allocated to the independent division concerning each construction servitude in the agreement
or in the petition, and the numbers of the independent divisions subject to the regime of
condominium ownership after the building has been completed, according to the projects
which have been submitted and the annexes attached to these sections shall be indicated in the
column of (statements).
When, after the building is completed the transformation of construction servitude into
condominium ownership is demanded by one of the holders of construction servitude, the
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registration shall be made according to the authenticated deed concerning the registration of
the construction servitude and the documents indicated in ARTICLE 12 and on the ground of
the confirmation of the Municipality stating that the independent divisions of the main
property conform to the plan previously submitted.
(Inserted parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 7) For the main property with construction
servitude whose structures have been completed, the transition to condominium ownership
has to be completed in one year from the certification of occupancy. Each servitude right
owner avoiding from completing or signing the documents which are specified in Article 12
that are to be necessarily submitted to title deeds registry office in time to establish
condominium ownership in spite of written notification made by one of construction servitude
right owners or manager, shall be punished with the administrative fine at the amount of
Thousand Turkish Liras by the municipality if main property is within the boundaries of
municipality or by the relevant public authority if it is not within the boundaries of
municipality, for each independent division which belongs to him / her.
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CHAPTER III
Rights of condominium owners and of holders of construction servitude
A) Right of condominium owners
I – On the independent division
ARTICLE 15. – Condominium owners have on the independent divisions owned by them
the rights recognized by the Civil Code to landowners, the relevant provisions of this law
being reserved.
II – On the common premises
ARTICLE 16. – Condominium owners become owners of all the common premises of the
main property, in proportion to their building plot share, according to the provisions ruling coownership.
Condominium owners have the right to use the common premises. The extent of this right in
such places as common coal cellars, garage, terrace, laundry and drying rooms shall be
proportionate to the building plot share, subject to anything contrary in the agreement.
B) Rights of the holders of construction servitude
ARTICLE 17. – Holders of construction servitude have the right of demanding the mutual
execution of the obligations incumbent of them in order that the building can be commenced
and completed within the period stipulated in the agreement and have the right to bring legal
proceedings to this effect.
(Amended: 13/4/1983 -2814/md.7) Holders of construction servitudes may appoint as
manager one or several from among themselves or from outside for completing the building.
The duties, powers and responsibilities of manager of condominium ownership are applied to
this manager.
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(Inserted: 13/4/1983 -2814/md.7) If the building has been actually completed and the
dwelling of two third of independent divisions has been actually started of real properties on
which construction servitude was established, even if the transition to condominium
ownership has not been realized, the provisions of condominium ownership are applied to the
management of main property.
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CHAPTER VI
Obligations of condominium owners and of holders of construction servitude
A) Obligations of condominium owners
I – General Rule
ARTICLE 18. – Condominium owners are mutually obliged when they use either the
independent divisions or the annexes and common premises, to comply with the rules of
equity, and in particular not to disturb each other, not to violate their reciprocal rights, and to
conform with the provisions of the management plan.
The provisions of this law regarding the obligations of condominium owners shall also apply
to the tenants of independent divisions and to holders of residential rights and to persons
regularly using these sections in any way whatsoever. Persons failing to comply with these
obligations are jointly responsible with the condominium owner.
(Abolished last parag.: 14/11/2007-5711/ md 24.)
II – Maintenance and protection of the main property and responsibility for damages
ARTICLE 19. – Condominium owners are mutually obliged to maintain the property and to
preserve its architectural condition, beauty and solidity.
(Amended second parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 8) One of condominium owners, without
written consent of four fifth of all condominium owners, cannot have the construction, repair
and facilities, exterior calcimine or painting in different colors made in the common places of
main property. However, if it is determined by the court that any defect in common places or
facilities will damage main structure or any independent division and it should be fixed or the
main structure should be strengthened immediately, said consent of building owners is not
sought to execute this repair or strengthening operation according to its project and technical
requirements. Condominium owner, in its own independent division, cannot make any repair,
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facility or modification operation which may damage the main structure. On connected places
of independent divisions which are connected to each other by the means of ceiling, ground or
wall the repair, facility and modification works which will not damage the main structure may
be made with the collective consent of the owners of this division.
Each condominium owner is responsible towards the other condominium owners for any
damage caused by his own fault to the main property and to other independent divisions.
III – Participation in the general expenses of the main property
ARTICLE 20.-
(Amended first parag.: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art.9)
Each of the condominium owners are liable to participate the followings unless otherwise is
agreed between themselves:
a) Equally to the expenses of door-keeper, central heating operator, gardener and watchman
and the advances to be collected for them;
b) The insurance premiums of the main property and the maintenance, protection,
amplification and repair expenses of all common premises, in other expenses such as the
salary of the manager and in the operating expenses of the common installations and the
advance payment for expenses, in proportion to its share of the building plot (1).
c) Condominium owners may not refrain from paying his share of expenses and advance
payments by desisting from his right to use the common premises or installations or that he
does not need to benefit from the same because of the situation of his independent division.
(Amended : 13/4/1983 – 2814/art.9) Legal action and execution proceedings may be taken
against condominium owners who fail to pay their share of expenses and advance payments,
by each condominium owner or by the manager, according to the management plan, this law
and general legislation. Condominium owner who did not pay all of his expenditure or
advance share is liable to pay delay compensation calculated by monthly five percent delay
interest for the delayed days.(1)
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Should any fault committed by an condominium owner or a person using in any way
whatsoever the independent division of the said owner entail the expenses enumerated in the
first paragraph, those having taken part in the expenses shall have a right of revocation for the
payments made by them, against the condominium owner in question or the persons having
caused the said expenses.
IV – Insurance contract
ARTICLE 21. – The board of condominium owners may decide to insure the main property
for an amount to be fixed by the board.
In case of insurance, condominium owners shall participate in the insurance charges in
proportion to their share in the building plot.
The insurance amount to be collected in case of complete destruction of the property shall be
distributed among the condominium owners in proportion to their share in the building plot,
subject to any agreement to the contrary.
If only one or several independent divisions or annexes or part of the common premises have
been damaged, the insured amount to be collected shall be spent for repairing the damaged
parts, in proportion to shares in the building plot.
Condominium owners may insure separately their independent divisions in their name and for
own account in order to cover losses which could not be covered by the insurance of the main
property. In this case they shall have sole claim to the insured amount to be collected, without
prejudice to their share in the insured amount of the main property.
The imperative provisions concerning the insurance are reserved.
(1) By the Article 9 of the law No.5711 dated 14/11/2007 the expression “amplification”
has been added after the expression “protection” in the subparagraph (b) of the first
paragraph and the expression “ten percent” in the second paragraph has been
amended as “five percent” and entered into the text.
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V – Guarantee of common expenses
ARTICLE 22. – (Amended first parag: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art. 10)
Also the people who are benefiting continuously from one of the independent divisions
depending upon a lease contract, residing right or another reason are liable jointly and
successively from expenditures and advance liability and delay compensation of the share of
condominium owner as per article 20. However, the liability of the leaser is limited with the
lease amount that he is liable to pay and the payment that he makes is deducted from his lease
debt.
If the debt of the condominium owner cannot be charged in this way as well, legal
right of lien shall be registered in favor of the other condominium owners for this amount
upon written request of the manager, if any, otherwise one of the condominium owners on the
independent division of the condominium owner that fails to pay for the debt as determined
by the court.
(Amended last sentence: 14/11/2007-5711/art. 10.) The provision of last paragraph of
Article 893 of Turkish Civil Code No. 4721 is also applied here.
(Amended: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art 10.) The claims of condominium owners on the
condominium owner who fails to pay his share of expenses or other persons in charge are
preferred debts.
VI – Obligation to give permission
ARTICLE 23. – Should it be necessary, for the purpose of repairing a damage or defect
having occurred in the independent division of a condominium owner, or in the installations
of this division or for the rebuild of facilities and for the technical examinations required for
building safety to enter another independent division, the owner of or the persons residing in
the said division in any other capacity are obliged to grant the permission to enter the said
division and carry out the necessary work.(1)
In case of damage to a part of the main property, for the refection of the said damaged part
and its annexes or the common premises or the installations of the independent division,
should it be necessary to use the interior or the exterior of undamaged independent divisions
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the owners or the persons residing in the said sections in any other capacity shall grant the
permission.
The owners of independent divisions having obtained the permission shall immediately
compensate any damage sustained by the owners or the persons residing in any other capacity
as a result of the permission granted under the foregoing paragraphs.
VII – Prohibitions
ARTICLE 24. – No institutions such as hospital, dispensary, clinique, polyclinique,
pharmaceutical laboratory shall be established in an independent division of the main
property, entered as a dwelling or business place in the Register. Agreements concluded by
condominium owners contrary to this prohibition shall be null and void. Doctors’
consultation rooms which do not have the character of a dispensary, clinique or polyclinique
are excepted.
Places such as cinema, theatre, café, casino, pavillon, bar, club, dancing hall and similar
entertainment and meeting places and feeding places such as bakery, restaurant, pastry-shop,
milk-shop and places such as workshop, dye-shop, printing-works, shop, gallery and market
can only be opened in an independent division of the main property entered as dwelling in the
Register, with the unanimous decision of the board of condominium owners.
This decision shall be entered on all the folios of the condominium ownership log concerning
independent divisions, upon the request of the manager or one of the condominium owners.
VIII – Obligation to transfer the condominium ownership
ARTICLE 25. – Should any of the condominium owners violate the rights of other
condominium owners to the point of making a nuisance of himself, by neglecting to fulfil the
obligations and failing to pay the debts incumbent on him under this law, the other
condominium owners are entitled to request the judge that the ownership right of the owner of
the said independent division be transferred to them.
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(1) By the article 11of the law no.5711 dated 14/11/2007 the expression “technical
examinations required for building safety” has been added after the expression
“rebuild of facilities” in this paragraph and entered into the text.
(Amended second parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 12)
Filing an action against such a condominium owner for paying the value of property of
independent division at the nearest date to the resolution to him / her and transferring this
ownership to other condominium owners proportionally with their building plot shares is
possible only if the other condominium owners conclude to a majority resolution by number
and building plot share, unless otherwise has been previously agreed. If some of
condominium owners do not choose to file then the suit is filed by other condominium owners
and the judge, before s/he passes a decision, gives an appropriate time to the claimants to pay
the transfer value in a three-month time deposit bank account for paying to the right owner in
future and to submit the receipt. When the document as per this payment is submitted and in
case of the acceptance of law suit, the judge adjudicates to transfer the ownership of the
independent division of respondent to claimant condominium owners in proportional to their
shares and to pay the transfer value and its accrued interest to respondent.
Under the following circumstances, the nuisance mentioned in the first paragraph is deemed,
in any case, to exist :
a) If failure to pay the debts resulting from common expenses and advance payments
entails executive processing or legal action three times in two calendar years,
b) If in spite of the order given in accordance with ARTICLE 33 by the justice of the
peace of the locality where the main property is situated, the debts and charges
indicated in this law are not paid or fulfilled and the rights of other condominium
owners continue to be thus violated for one year,
c) In case of any act contrary top morals, by using the independent division as a house of
prostitution, gaming house or the like.
(Amended fourth parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 12) If the right to file lawsuit in this article
is not used in six months from the date on which the decision of condominium owners to file
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lawsuit regarding transfer is learnt and in five years from arise of right to file lawsuit or if the
reason of lawsuit has disappeared the action is dismissed.
B) Debts of construction servitude holders
ARTICLE 26. – Holders of construction servitudes are mutually obliged to comply in due
time with the obligations incumbent on them in order to complete, according to the agreement
and to plan, the building to be constructed on the common plot covered by the said servitude,
in order to transform the same subsequently into condominium ownership and they facilitate
the work of building according to the rules of equity.
(Amended second parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 13) If one of construction servitude owners
does not pay his / her debts in two months in spite of and from the notification made through
the medium of notary public the judge, upon the written request of others, adjudicates to
transfer her / his building plot share and construction servitude to the other stakeholders in
proportion to their building plot shares.
Should the construction servitude become extinct through failure to build within the legal time
limit by the fault of a servitude holder, the party at fault shall compensate the damages
sustained through such action by the other holders.
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CHAPTER V
Management of the Main Property
A) Board
ARTICLE 27. – The main property shall be managed by the board of condominium owners
and the method of management shall be decided by the said board, subject to the imperative
provisions of the law.
B) Management plan
ARTICLE 28. – The management plan shall determine the method of management, the
object and manner of use, the remuneration of managers and controllers and other details
regarding management. The management plan has the force of an agreement binding on all
condominium owners.
In the absence of any provisions in the management plan, disputes arising from the
management of the main property shall be settled according to this law and to general
legislation.
(Amended: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art 11.) The votes of four fifth of condominium owners are
required for any modification in the management plan. The right of condominium owners to
apply to the court according to article 33 is reserved.
The management plan and amendments thereof shall be binding on all condominium owners
and their heirs and general legatees and their managers and controllers.
The date of the management plan and of all subsequent amendments shall be entered in the
column entitled “statements” of the condominium ownership log and they shall be attached to
the management plan and kept with the documents regarding the establishment of
condominium ownership.
23
C)Meeting of the condominium owners and resolutions
I – Time of meetings
ARTICLE 29. – The meeting of condominium owners shall be held at the time indicated in
the management plan and at least one a year. If no time is indicated, it shall be held during the
first month of each calendar year. ( Inserted sentence: 14/11/2007-5711/ art 14) As per the
multiple buildings, the boards shall meet at the times specified in the management plans but at
least once in two years, or in the first month of second calendar year if such time has not been
specified in management plan.
When there is an important motive, the meeting of condominium owners may be called at
any time, by the manager or the controller or one third of the condominium owners, by a
notice sent by registered mail or signed by all condominium owners, at least fifteen days prior
to the date specified for the meeting, by indicating the reasons thereof.
The first notice shall also indicate the place and date of the second meeting if there is no
quorum at the first meeting. (Inserted sentence: 14/11/2007-5711/ art 14) The time between
first and second meetings cannot be less than seven days.
II – Quorum
ARTICLE 30. – The meeting shall be held when more than one half of the number of
condominium owners and more than one half of the plot shares are present and shall render its
resolution by majority.
(Amended second parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 15) In case that the first meeting cannot be
made because the quorum cannot be met then the second meeting is made in fifteen days at
the latest. The quorum in this meeting is the absolute majority of participants.
The provisions specified in this law regarding quorum are reserved.
24
III – Voting
ARTICLE 31. – Each condominium owner has one vote without any consideration for the
proportion of his share in the building plot.
A condominium owner of more than one independent division in the main property, has a
separate vote for each independent division. However whatever the number of independent
division owned is, he shall not have a number of votes exceeding one third of all the votes.
Fractions shall be discarded when calculating the number of votes.
Should an independent division be owned by several persons, they shall be represented on the
board of the condominium owners by one of to whom they will delegate their powers. Should
an condominium owner be under disability, he will be represented by his legal representative.
If the resolution to be taken concerns him directly, the condominium owner may be present at
the discussion without having voting power.
(Amended last parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 16) One of condominium owners can use her /
his vote by the medium of her / his representative. One person cannot be assigned as the
representative to use more than 5% of the number of votes. However, as per the immovable
assets which are subject to forty or less condominium ownerships one person can represent
maximum two people.
IV – Resolution
ARTICLE 32. – The main property shall be managed according to the resolutions taken by
the board of condominium owners according to the agreement, the management plan and the
provisions of the law.
All condominium owners and their heirs and general legatees and managers and controllers
shall abide by the resolutions passed by the board of condominium owners.
25
Disputes resulting from the use or management of the main property, among the
condominium owners or between them and the managers and controllers, or among the
managers and controllers, shall be settled by the board of condominium owners.
The resolutions of the board of condominium owners shall be entered in a register having all
its pages numbered and legalized by the Notary and shall be signed by all condominium
owners present at the meeting. Dissentients shall sign the resolution by giving a reason for
their opposition.
Disputes arising on a question shall be settled in principle according to a previous resolution
on the same question entered in the register of resolutions.
V – Intervention of the judge
ARTICLE 33. –(Amended first parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 17) Each condominium
owner who has attended but used dissentive vote in the board meeting in accordance with the
provision of Article 32 in one month from the date of adjudication, and each condominium
owner who has not attended in the board meeting in one month from the date s/he learns the
board resolution but in six months from the date of adjudication at the latest can file a nullity
suit against the resolutions of the board of condominium owners at the court of peace of the
place in which the said main property is located; and in the cases the resolutions of the board
of condominium owners are deemed invalid due to absolute nullity there will be no time
restriction to apply to the court. One or more condominium owner who suffer because one of
condominium owners or any person who continuously makes benefit of her / his flat based on
the lease agreement, right of occupation or any other reason does not fulfill her / his debts or
obligations can apply to the court of peace authorized in that place and plead for the
intervention of judge.
The judge, after having heard the parties, shall immediately render his judgment according to
this law and the management plan or in the absence of these according to general legislation
and the rules of equity and shall notify the party concerned verbally or in writing to comply
thereto within a short time to be fixed by the judge.
26
(Amended third parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 17) The ones who have not fulfilled the
requirements of decision given by the judge are punished with the administrative pecuniary
penalty from two-hundred and fifty Turkish Liras to two thousand Turkish Liras by the court.
The provision of Article 25 is reserved.
D )Manager
I – Assignment
ARTICLE 34. – Condominium owners may entrust the management of the main property to
a person or to a committee of three persons to be chosen from among themselves or outsiders.
The said person shall be called “manager” and the committee “board of managers”.
When the main property contains eight or a larger number of independent divisions, the
assignment of a manager is compulsory.
When all the sections of the main property are owned by a single person, he is legally in the
situation of manager.
The manager shall be appointed by the numerical majority of the condominium owners and
the majority of building plot shares.
The manager shall be appointed anew at each legal annual meeting of the condominium
owners. The retiring manager is reeligible.
If the condominium owners fail to agree on the matter of management of the main property or
of the assignment of a manager, upon the request of one of the condominium owners and, if
possible, after having heard the other owners, the justice of the peace of the locality where the
main property is situated shall appoint a manager. This manager shall have the same powers
as a manager appointed by the condominium owners and shall be responsible towards them.
The manager appointed by the justice of the peace shall not be replaced by the board of
condominium owners before six months have elapsed since his assignment. However, for a
justified reason the court having appointed the manager may authorize his replacement.
27
The contract to be signed with the manager may contain a clause providing for the deposit of
a guarantee. Even in the absence of such a clause the board of condominium owners may
require a deposit from the manager for a justified reason.
(Amended last parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 18) The name and surname, business and
residence addresses of manager should be hung in a frame beside the entrance door of main
property or on a visible place at the entrance. If this is not done, upon the application made by
the relevant person, the manager or each member of the board of managers is punished with
the administrative pecuniary penalty from fifty Turkish Liras to two-hundred and fifty
Turkish Liras by the same court.
II– Duties of the manager

  1. General duties of management
    ARTICLE 35. – The duties of the manager are indicated in the management plan. Subject to
    anything to the contrary in the plan, the manager shall be entrusted with the following duties:
    a) Executing the resolutions passed by the board of condominium owners,
    b) Taking the necessary precautions for the protection, maintenance and use of the
    main property in accordance with its object,
    c) Insuring the main property,
    d) Collecting a sufficient amount in advance at the time indicated in the management
    plan and, in the absence of any indication, in the course of the first month of each
    calendar year for the general management work of the main property maintenance
    work such as protection, repairs, cleaning, the elevator, central heating and air
    conditioning service and insurance, and when the advance is spent, collecting
    additional advances,
    e) Accepting all other payments regarding the management of the main property,
    paying the debts resulting from the management of the main property and, if he has
    been given the authority by the condominium owners, collecting the rent of
    independent divisions,
    f) Receiving the notifications concerning the whole of the main property,
    28
    g) Taking the necessary precautions to prevent the expiry of any time limit or the loss
    of any right concerning the main property,
    h) Taking on behalf of condominium owners the necessary measures for the
    protection and maintenance of the main property which are to their advantage,
    i) Instituting proceedings against condominium owners failing to comply with the
    obligations and charges concerning condominium ownership and having entered in
    the condominium ownership log the right of statutory lien,
    j) Opening in a valid bank, an account in his own name but by indicating his
    qualification of manager of the main property in order to deposit and withdraw,
    when needed, the sums and advances collected.
    k) Calling the board of condominium owners to the meeting.
  2. Accounting and keeping of records
    ARTICLE 36. – The manager shall enter in the book indicated in ARTICLE 32, in the
    chronological order, the resolutions passed by the board of condominium owners, a summary
    of protests and notices and all expenses, and shall preserve this book and all vouchers for
    expenses and other vouchers in a file.
    The manager shall have this book closed by the Notary, in the course of the month following
    the end of each calendar year.
    The manager failing to comply with the duties indicated in this ARTICLE shall be liable to
    the penalties indicated in the last paragraph of ARTICLE 33.
  3. Drawing up the operation project
    ARTICLE 37. – (Amended: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art. 12)
    If there has not been any accepted operation project by the board of condominium owners, the
    manager shall draw up the same as soon as possible.
    This project shall particularly indicate the following details :
    29
    a) Estimates of income and expenses of the main property for the period of one operational
    year.
    b) The approximate amounts of the share of each condominium owner on all expenses,
    according to the principles of article 20 of this Law;
    c) The amount of the advance that each condominium owner has to pay according to the
    principles of article 20 of this Law, in order to cover the estimated and other eventual
    expenses.
    This project is notified to condominium owners or beneficiaries of independent divisions by
    either personally in return for their signatures or registered mail. Should one of the
    condominium owners object to the said project within seven days after the date on which it
    has been communicated to him, the matter shall be reviewed by the board of condominium
    owners and a resolution is passed regarding the said project, in case of necessity a new project
    shall be drawn up.
    Finalized operation projects or resolutions of the board of condominium owners regarding
    operation expenditures are deemed documents specified in paragraph 1 of article 68 of
    Execution and Bankruptcy Law.
    III– Responsibility of the manager
  4. General rule
    ARTICLE 38. – The manager is responsible towards the condominium owners exactly as an
    attorney.
    (Inserted parag. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 19) The claims against the resolutions of the board
    of condominium owners, board of block representatives, or board of mass building
    representatives can be filed against the manager representing condominium owners, or against
    the manager who was voted by the board of block representatives or board of mass building
    representatives on condition of showing animosity towards him/her.. The manager announces
    the said claim to all condominium owners or board of block or mass building representatives.
    In case of the nullity of board resolution, the court expenses shall be met from the common
    expenses.
    30
  5. Giving of accounts
    ARTICLE 39. – The manager shall submit to the board of condominium owners, at the
    times indicated in the management plan and, in the absence of any plan, in the course of the
    first month of each calendar year, a statement of the income collected and expenses paid in
    connection with the main property, up to the date in question.
    Should it be required by one half of the condominium owners and whatever their share of
    building plot is, the manager may be asked to submit accounts outside the dates indicated in
    the management plan.
    IV – Rights of the manager
    ARTICLE 40. – The manager shall in principle have the rights of an attorney.
    Should the condominium owners fail to comply with their obligations and charges incumbent
    on them in due time and entirely in spite of a formal notice served through the notary, the
    manager shall be entitled to terminate his contract and withdraw without having to pay any
    compensation and claim from the condominium owners, the compensation of losses suffered
    through such action.
    Even if no retribution has been fixed in the management plan, or in the contract concluded
    with him, the manager may claim from the condominium owners a reasonable retribution.
    (Amended: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art.13.)
    The board of condominium owners decide whether the manager who has been appointed
    among condominium owners will participate to normal management expenditures or not,
    should he participate, in which proportion he will participate. If no decision was made to this
    end, the manager does not participate half of the normal management expenditures of his
    share during his management period.
    31
    E) Control of the management
    ARTICLE 41. – The board of condominium owners shall regularly control the manner in
    which the manager is discharging his duties and may at any time replace the manager for a
    justified reason.
    If no fixed time has been specified in the management plan for the control of accounts, this
    control shall be made every three months. The accounts may however be controlled at any
    time for a justified reason.
    The board of condominium owners may entrust the duty of control to a controller or to a
    control board to be chosen from among themselves by numerical majority or by majority of
    building plot share. In this case the controller or the control board shall submit to the board of
    the condominium owners, at the times indicated in the management plan and in the absence of
    such plan, in the course of the first month of such calendar year, a report indicating the results
    of the control and their opinion regarding the method of management of the main property.
    This report shall be duplicated and one copy sent by registered mail to each condominium
    owner.
    • The controller shall enter this report and the resolutions taken by them as well as other
    questions deemed necessary in a register having all its pages legalised by the notary
    and shall sign these entries.
    F)Innovations and additions
    I- Those that are useful
    ARTICLE 42. – Condominium owners cannot make, on his own authority, alterations in the
    common premises of the main property. All innovations and additions for making the
    common premises easier to use and more comfortable or more useful shall be made by a
    decision rendered by condominium owners, by numerical majority or majority of building
    plot shares.
    32
    (Inserted paragraph: 1/7/2005-5378/ Art. 19) Where compulsory for the life of disabled
    persons, the project revision shall be discussed in the meeting to be held by the landowners
    within not later than three months and shall be decided upon majority of number of votes and
    shares in the land. If the meeting cannot be held within this period of time or the demand for
    revision is not accepted by majority, the construction, repair and installation shall be made
    according to the certified project revision or layout to be obtained from the concerned
    authorities pursuant to the report of the commission stating that this does not endanger safety
    of building. The concerned authorities shall finalize the certified project revision or layout
    demands within not later than six months. The procedures and principles for formation of the
    commission, working procedures and the process after use by the disabled persons shall be
    laid down in a regulation that shall be prepared jointly by the Ministry of Public Works and
    Settlement and the Administration Department for Disabled Persons.
    The expenses of these procedures shall be paid by the beneficiaries of renovations at
    percentage of benefiting.
    (Amended fourth paragraph: 18/4/2007-5627/art.16) Thermal isolation, fuel conversion of
    heating system and conversion of heating system from central system to individual system or
    from individual system to central system upon request of any of the condominium owners,
    could only be made with the decision to be taken by majority of the condominium owners in
    terms of number and share of building plot. However, conversion of heating system from
    central system to individual system in the buildings with a total construction area of two
    thousand meter squares or above could only be made with the decision to be taken by
    unanimous votes of the condominium owners in terms of number and share of building plot.
    Expenses of joint works in this respect are paid pro rata to share of building plot. Procedures
    and principles regarding distribution of heating expenses in central heating systems shall be
    regulated by the regulation to be issued by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement.
    (Amended fifth paragraph: 18/4/2007-5627/art.16) In case it is decided for conversion of
    heating system from central system to individual system, provisions in the management plan
    in contradiction to this decision are deemed to be amended.
    33
    II- Those that are very expensive or luxurious
    ARTICLE 43. – If the innovations and additions that are being considered as very
    expensive or have a luxurious character as compared with the special conditions of the
    building or are not situated in places or passages to be necessarily used by all condominium
    owners, a condominium owner who does not want to participate in the expenses shall not be
    bound to participate. Expenses on innovations and additions of this kind shall be paid by the
    condominium owners who have decided on their construction.
    If however the condominium owner who has not taken part in the expenses at the beginning,
    or his heirs or universal legatee, share in the building and maintenance expenses in proportion
    to their share of building plot, they become entitled to take advantage of the luxurious
    innovations and additions.
    III- Addition of independent divisions
    ARTICLE 44. – In order to add a floor to the main property or to transform a recessed into
    a full or to build and add subsequently independent divisions as indicated in ARTICLE 24 in
    the ground or the basement floor, or on the empty parts of the building plot, it is necessary:
    a) that the board of condominium owners pass a unanimous resolution to this
    effect,
    b) that the shares of building plot to be allocated to all the independent divisions,
    main property, including the new additions, be duly determined again and by unanimous
    resolution according to the future situation of the main property following such building,
    c) That a construction servitude be established with an authenticated instrument
    according to ARTICLE 14 on the share of building plot allocated to the new independent
    division to be added, that such servitude be entered in the column of servitudes of
    condominium ownership log of all the independent divisions of the main property and that a
    connexion be established according to ARTICLE 13 with the old folio of the main property.
    34
    Condominium owners who, while approving such additions and enlargements do not wish to
    participate must confirm by an authenticated instrument that they agree to their diminished
    share of building plot being allocated to the independent divisions of those who have made
    the addition.
    In this case, the new independent divisions shall be transformed into condominium ownership
    according to the authenticated instrument concerning the establishment of construction
    servitude, provided that the value of the reduced portion of the building plot share of the
    condominium owners who have not participated in the construction of the new independent
    division be paid to them and becomes the property of the person or the joint property of the
    persons who have built the same and is entered in the name of the new owner or owners in a
    separate folio of the condominium ownership log.
    G) Alienations and important questions
    ARTICLE 45. – Alienations such as the institution of an encumbrance on the main property
    or the division and transfer of the separated portion to a third person or important
    administrative affairs such as the letting on hire of the outer walls or of the roof of the main
    property for advertising purposes shall be subject to the unanimous decision of all the
    condominium owners.
    35
    CHAPTER VI
    End of the Condominium Ownership and of the Construction Servitude
    A) End of the condominium ownership
    I – Through the loss or the expropriation of the main property with its building plot
    ARTICLE 46.- Condominium ownership shall end with the cancellation of its record in the
    Land Register.
    Condominium ownership shall not end automatically following the ownership of all
    independent divisions of the main property by a single person.
    The entry in the Register shall be cancelled following a written application made by all the
    condominium owners or by the owner of all independent divisions for the purposes of
    transforming condominium ownership of the main property into an ordinary ownership and
    the property in question shall be entered in a new folio of the General Register, according to
    the shares of plot accruing to the independent divisions, by effecting a connection with the old
    entries. If alterations have been made in the character of the main property after the
    establishment of condominium ownership, they shall also be entered in the new folio.
    If one of the independent division encumbered by a reel right or by a personal right has been
    entered in the Register, the transformation of condominium ownership into ordinary
    ownership and the cancellation of the entry in the condominium ownership log may not be
    requested as long as the right in question has not been cancelled from the Register with the
    approval of the holder of the said right.
    If the encumbrance, while refusing the cancellation of the entry, agrees that the encumbrance
    be transferred only to the property share of the debtor or, according to the character of the
    right, to all co-ownership shares, it shall be entered in the General Register by transferring the
    same only on all the co-ownership shares of the debtor in the property placed under the
    regime of ordinary ownership, without being cancelled from the Register.
    36
    In case of total loss or expropriation of the main building with its building plot, the
    cancellation of the entry in the Register shall be made according to general legislation.
    When the main property is entirely expropriated, the price of expropriation of each
    independent division shall be estimated separately by taking into account also the building
    plot share and the annexes attached thereto and paid to the owner of the division in question.
    II – Destruction of the main building
    ARTICLE 47. – Should the main building be entirely destroyed, condominium ownership
    on the main property shall automatically end.
    When one of the independent divisions of the main building is entirely destroyed and its
    owner does not have it rebuilt within two years, the other condominium owners or some of
    them may request from the judge, within the year following the expiry of the said tine limit,
    that the building plot share of the division in question be transferred to them against payment
    of its value and in proportion to their shares of building plot. In this case the shares of plot
    transferred shall be entered in the column of (Statements) of the relevant folios of the
    condominium ownership log. Those who have acquired the building plot share are obliged to
    have the independent division rebuilt within two years after the date of transfer or all the
    owners of independent divisions shall, within the same time limit, calculate again the value of
    their shares of plot attached to the independent divisions according to the second paragraph of
    ARTICLE 3 of this law and have them entered in the condominium ownership log.
    In case of non-compliance with the foregoing paragraph, the regime of condominium
    ownership of the main property shall automatically end and the provisions of co-ownership
    shall apply to the insurance compensation collected for the property in question or for the
    damaged divisions.
    If several independent divisions are destroyed and the rebuilding of one division depends on
    the rebuilding of another, the owners of the independent divisions which were destroyed shall
    37
    inform in writing the other condominium owners within six months after the destruction,
    whether they intend to rebuild or not. (Amended last sentence. : 14/11/2007-5711/ art 20)
    The ones who have not declared are deemed that they do not want to get it made again and
    their building plot shares are firstly transferred to the ones who desire to have their divisions
    made in consideration of its value.
    The condominium ownership of independent divisions which have been destroyed shall be
    transformed into construction servitude during the periods indicated in this ARTICLE and a
    transitory entry shall be made in the column of (statements) of the condominium ownership
    log. When the independent division is rebuilt, it will come again under the regime of
    condominium ownership and the transitory entry is cancelled.
    III – Obligations of informing and cancellation of the entry
    ARTICLE 48. – In case of destruction of the totality or part of the main property or of the
    main building, the Land Registry of the locality where the property in question is situated is
    and all the condominium owners, shall be informed thereof immediately by the manager and,
    in the absence of a manager, the Land Registry shall be informed by the owner of the
    independent division which has been destroyed. The owner of the independent division and
    the manager shall be jointly responsible, the first for the totality and the second for one fifth
    on the damage resulting for failure to notify the destruction. The Treasury shall not be
    responsible.
    When condominium ownership ends, the folios of condominium ownership shall be closed
    and the property entered in the General Register according to the rules of co-ownership, in
    proportion to the shares of plot, by effecting a connexion with the entry in the general
    Register, prior to the establishment of condominium ownership. In this case the provisions
    regarding co-ownership shall apply to the insurance compensation and to the debris.
    If the co-owner or the co-owners wish to rebuild under the regime of condominium ownership
    on the site of the main building which has been entirely destroyed, the provisions regarding
    the establishment of construction servitude and condominium ownership shall be applied.
    38
    B) End of the construction servitude
    ARTICLE 49. – The owner or co-owners of the site subject to construction servitude may
    end this servitude at any time by having the entry regarding construction servitude cancelled
    by means of a written statement handed to the Land Registrar.
    The construction servitude shall automatically end when the building plot on which it has
    been instituted is entirely destroyed or becomes unfit for building or when it is expropriated.
    (Amended paragraphs: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art 14.): The judge of peace court may decide also
    by hearing the related people in case of necessity to terminate construction servitude or extend
    the period upon the request of one of the owners when no building is erected for a period of
    five years on the site, according to the plan submitted at the time of establishing this
    construction servitude. This period may be extended again upon request.
    When condominium ownership is terminated according to the above paragraph, the record on
    title deed log is deleted.
    39
    CHAPTER VII
    Final Provisions
    A) Prohibitions
    ARTICLE 50.- After this law comes into force , no construction servitude may be
    established by one of the co-owners of a property under the Civil Code or other laws, for the
    exclusive use of a division of the said property as a condominium owner.
    No condominium ownership may be established on a building which is not entirely of
    masonry.
    B) Adaptation to the new situation
    I – For the servitudes established after the Civil Code coming into force
    ARTICLE 51.- (Amended first paragraph: 30/4/1969 – 1166/art 1.) The ownership of
    properties on which a servitude has been established by one of the owners of a property after
    the Civil Code coming into force up to this Law coming into force , for the exclusive use of
    a division in the property in question as a condominium owner, must be transformed into
    condominium ownership and entered in the condominium ownership log up to 2nd January
  6. Otherwise the servitude shall terminate and only co-ownership will continue.
    The transformation of the ownership of the property into condominium ownership under the
    first paragraph and its entry in the condominium ownership log shall be effected upon the
    request of one of the co-owners made to the Land Registry on the ground of documents filed
    at the Land Registry and the photograph mentioned in paragraph (b) of ARTICLE 12 of this
    law. In this case it is sufficient that the photograph be signed by co-owner who has applied to
    the Land Registry.
    The other co-owners may not object to the said transformation and not desist from sharing in
    the expenses and the drawing up of the management plan. If they desist, ARTICLE 33
    regarding the intervention of the judge shall be applied.
    40
    II – For the rights established prior to the Civil Code
    ARTICLE 52. – The rights established under such names as (air right, room ownership)
    prior to the Civil Code coming into force shall be transformed into condominium ownership
    or construction servitude under this law in accordance with the provisions indicated below,
    within three years after the coming into force of this law.
    If there exists on the property divisions on which these rights have been established, the
    beneficiaries shall become, by an agreement concluded between themselves, co-owners of the
    site of the property in question under the provisions of the Civil Code regarding coownership,
    in proportion to the value of their respective divisions, without being obliged to
    pay any price and shall establish a construction servitude according to the relevant provisions
    of the law on condominium ownership.
    If there are no building divisions, but there exists only an air right, the said right shall be
    automatically transformed into a construction servitude rendering the holder thereof co-owner
    of the building plot under the rules of subparagraph (a) and shall be entered in this manner in
    the Register.
    If within three years after the date of this law coming into force , the beneficiaries do not
    transform their old rights into condominium ownership or servitude, this transformation shall
    be effected by the Land Registry of the locality where the property is situated, ex officio or
    upon the request of one of the beneficiaries, by determining the shares of plot in proportion to
    the value of the separate divisions and by preparing the necessary document, according to the
    rules of subparagraphs (a) and (b) of this ARTICLE and all beneficiaries shall be informed
    thereof.
    The expenses incurred for the transformation of these rights into condominium ownership or
    servitude by the Land Registry shall be paid by the Treasury and collected from the
    beneficiaries under the provisions of the special Law regarding the collection of State claims.
    Beneficiaries may object to the decision of the Land Registry by bringing an action before the
    court of the peace within one month after the date of notification.
    41
    III – Management of the servitudes established under the Civil Code
    ARTICLE 53. – Until the servitudes established prior to this law coming into force by one
    of the co-owners of a property for the exclusive use a division of the property in question as a
    condominium owner have been transformed into condominium ownership under this law, the
    provisions of this law regarding the management of the property, the obligations of preparing
    a management plan, the expenses and the obligation of insurance and of sharing in the relative
    premium shall be applied.
    C) Situation of condominium ownership in case of co-ownership under the special law
    ARTICLE 54. – (Amended first paragraph: 14/11/2007-5711/art.21) In case of
    collectivization according to the provisions of Building Code if there is a real estate which is
    subject to condominium ownership among the collectivized real estates and if all owners have
    come to an agreement to terminate collectivization according to the Article 46 of the Code
    No. 6785 on Building if this collectivization has been made before 9.11.1985 or according to
    the Article 16 of the Code no. 3194 on Building if the collectivization is after this date, then
    the termination of collectivization is made under the provisions of this agreement.
    (Amended second paragraph: 14/11/2007-5711/art.21) If such an agreement cannot be
    concluded, the valid value of each real estate before the collectivization is determined by the
    court of peace authorized to resolve this collectivization according to the provisions of above
    mentioned article and after the nearest value of each real estate on the date of resolution has
    been determined also by applying producer price index issued by Turkish Statistical Institute
    it is decided that the owner of most valuable real estate is offered to purchase other real
    estates at this price level. When this offer is accepted and the said amount is paid the
    collectivization is terminated.
    If the price is not paid within one month or no bank guarantee or guarantee in kind is given
    within six months after the notification of the judgment of the court having become final, the
    whole of the properties under co-ownership shall be sold by auction while maintaining
    condominium ownership and joining thereto, if feasible, the other properties, otherwise by
    42
    cancelling condominium ownership, and co-ownership shall be ended and the sale proceeds
    shall be divided among the owners in proportion to the value estimated for each property
    according to the second paragraph.
    D)Taxes and charges
    ARTICLE 55. – The establishment of condominium ownership and of construction
    servitude is free of all taxes and charges as long as it does not entail the transfer of the
    property to a third person. This exemption shall also extend to the formalities of
    transformation into condominium ownership under ARTICLE 51, of servitudes established
    after the coming into force of the Civil Code under ARTICLE 52 into condominium
    ownership or construction servitude .
    Condominium ownership shall, after its establishment, be notified by the Land Registrar to
    the Municipality and to the Revenue office of the locality where the main property is
    registered.
    E) Situation in localities where there is no municipalities
    ARTICLE 56. – The duties entrusted to Municipalities by this law shall be discharged, in
    localities where there is no municipality, by the municipality of the chief town of the province
    or of the district to which the locality in question is attached and, in the localities mentioned
    under ARTICLE 47 of Law No. 6785, on Building, by the Municipality concerned.
    43
    CHAPTER VIII(1)
    Right of Timeshare
    ARTICLE 57. – The right to enjoy a building or an independent division suitable for use as a
    residence in favour of any one of the co-owners during certain period of the year, may be
    established as a right of servitude based on the shares hold in the collective property.
    This right is expressly defined as the right of timeshare.
    ARTICLE 58. – Unless otherwise is agreed in the deed, the share hold in the collective
    property is determined equally in consideration of the number of terms and utilization period
    of the property.
    The right of timeshare can be established only on the independent buildings in the nature of
    residence or those which are transformed into condominium ownership or construction
    servitude.
    Real right compatible with this right can be established on the collective property.
    The right of timeshare can be transferred or assigned or devoted to the heirs in consideration
    of the shares hold in the collective property.
    ARTICLE 59. – The right of timeshare should cover the certain periods of the year and shall
    not be less than 15 days. Unless otherwise is agreed in the contract, the possessor of right of
    timeshare may delegate others to exercise this right.
    ARTICLE 60. – When making declaration about the main property, independent divisions
    and independent buildings, an annotation is entered in the land registry log indicating the
    establishment of right of timeshare on the independent division or the building and this fact is
    also noted in the title deed.
    44
    ARTICLE 61. – The periods to be allocated to the co-owners, principles and procedures
    relating to utilization, transfer and assignment of the shares hold in the building or
    independent division within the scope of timeshare, election of the managers, rights and
    responsibilities of the managers, the period to be reserved for major repair works,
    maintenance expenses etc. are determined in the term-co-ownership contract. The timeshare
    contract containing all these details is enclosed to the deed after being signed by the rightful
    parties and an annotation on this subject is entered in the declarations column of the land
    registry log.
    (1) This section and the articles under this section have been added by the first
    article of Law No. 3227 dated 10/6/1985.
    The co-owners who hold share in each building or independent division utilized as collective
    property must appoint, among themselves or from outside, a real person or legal entity to act
    as a manager and to represent them in the condominium owners’ board. The managers who
    are appointed according to the general provisions of this law may also be assigned to function
    as the manager of the collective property subject to timeshare.
    ARTICLE 62. – Unless otherwise is agreed in the management plan, establishment of right
    of timeshare on some of the independent divisions transformed to condominium ownership, is
    not subject to consent of the owners of the other independent divisions.
    ARTICLE 63. – Unless otherwise is agreed in the contract, the co-owners of the servient
    building and independent division cannot demand partition of the property.
    ARTICLE 64. – At the end of the term specified in the registry log, the co-owner is obliged
    to evacuate the independent division or the building in time to be delivered to the new coowner
    according to the provisions of the contract.
    In case the property is not evacuated at the end of the term, it is evacuated at once by security
    forces with the order of territorial governor upon notification of a co-owner to use the
    property or the manager by attaching the title deed register and the agreement to his demand,
    without any further transaction or sending a notification. Filing of an appeal to the
    45
    administrative authorities or the court may not suppress enforcement of evacuation decision.
    The right of the concerned parties arising out of the laws and the contract are hereby reserved.
    ARTICLE 65. – As for the matters which are not covered by this Law, contract or
    management plan, the provision of Turkish Civil Code and the relevant laws are considered in
    determination of the rights and liabilities, powers and responsibilities of the co-owners and
    settlement of disputes.
    46
    PART NINE (1)
    Special Provisions Regarding Mass Buildings
    Scope
    ARTICLE 66- (Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) Mass building refers to multiple
    structures which have been / will be constructed in line with a certain certified layout plan on
    one or more building parcel(s) and which are connected to each other by infrastructure
    facilities, common usage areas, social facilities and services and management of these
    facilities.
    The building parcels within the scope of mass building have to be adjacent or neighboring
    parcels. However, it is not necessary for the places between these parcels which, according to
    the building zone plan, have been allocated to public services such as road, public square,
    open space area, green area, park, parking lot. Each building parcel within the scope of mass
    building is distinctly taken into account during establishment of construction servitude and
    condominium ownership. However, if the mass building includes multiple building parcels, a
    condominium ownership relation cannot be established between individual parcels according
    to mass building provisions.
    As the buildings are completed, the construction servitudes which belong to the completed
    buildings may be changed to the condominium ownership.
    (1) By the article 22of the law no 5711 dated 14/11/2007 the following articles have been
    added under “Part Nine” entitled “ Special Provisions Regarding Mass Buildings”
    after article 65 and articles no 66 and 67 have been amended as articles 75 and 76.
    Common Places
    ARTICLE 67- (Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) The parcels which are within the scope
    of mass building and which have been allocated to common use and benefit of independent
    divisions within this scope are registered into title deeds registry by writing the plot, parcel,
    block and independent division numbers of other parcels within the scope of mass building to
    which they have been allocated and they become the common places of independent divisions
    located in the parcels allocated to them.
    47
    Common social and infrastructure facilities of multiple structures within the scope of mass
    building are deemed the common places of independent divisions to which they have been
    allocated regardless of their parcel and structure.
    Site Plans and Projects
    ARTICLE 68-(Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) In mass buildings the locations of
    buildings, common places and facilities, their use types and purposes covering whole parcel
    or parcels within the scope of mass building are indicated in the site plan and projects which
    have been prepared according to the provisions of building plan approved by the relevant
    authorities as a whole.
    Arrangement, operation, and maintenance of public spaces can be undertaken by the mass
    building management in case a mutual understanding has been made with the authorized
    public institute and provided that the use by public is not restricted.
    The issues regarding establishment of condominium ownership and construction servitude,
    required documents, and transactions to be made at title deeds registry office are arranged in a
    Regulation to be issued by the Ministry of Public Works and Settlement.
    Management
    ARTICLE 69-(Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) Each block of building having common
    places in the main structure which covers multiple independent divisions on the parcel and
    parcels within the scope of mass building, regarding its own problems and common places
    solely belong to it, is managed by the board of block condominium owners constituted by the
    owners of independent divisions at that block. If there are non-block structures on a parcel or
    if such structures and block structures are at the same parcel, then this parcel, regarding its
    problems and common places solely belong to it, is managed by the board of condominium
    owners constituted by the owners of independent divisions at that parcel. The management
    type of blocks and non-block structures is additionally indicated in the management plan.
    If there are multiple parcels on a plot then the common places of these parcels which
    constitute the plot are managed by the board of plot condominium owners constituted by the
    owners of independent divisions at that plot and the management style is determined by this
    board, save for the mandatory provisions of law. This authority may be given to the board of
    48
    plot representatives in the management plan. Unless otherwise arranged in the management
    plan, the board of plot representatives consists of the block managers who are voted by the
    independent division owners in each block and representatives who are voted by the
    independent division owners of non-block structures. The number and selection method of the
    members of board of plot representatives are indicated in the management plan by taking the
    structure of mass building into account. These managers and representatives have the right to
    vote as the number of independent divisions which they manage and represent.
    The common places, spaces, and facilities within the scope of mass building are managed
    by the board of mass building condominium owners constituted by the owners of independent
    divisions at that mass building and the management style is determined by this board, save for
    the mandatory provisions of law. This authority may be given to the board of mass building
    representatives in the management plan. Unless otherwise is arranged in the management
    plan, the board of mass building representatives consists of the block managers who are voted
    by the independent division owners in each block and representatives who are voted by the
    independent division owners of non-block structures. The number and selection method of the
    members of board of mass building representatives are indicated in the management plan by
    taking the structure of mass building into account. These managers and representatives have
    the right to vote as the number of independent divisions which they manage and represent.
    Management Plan and Amendment of This Plan
    ARTICLE 70-(Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) A single management plan is arranged
    for the structures and places within the scope of mass building. The management plan is
    binding on all condominium owners at that mass building. To be able to amend this
    management plan four fifth of all votes represented by the members of mass building
    representatives is needed.
    The provisions of management plan regarding temporary management can be changed by
    the four fifth of the votes of independent division owners at the mass building area.
    Assignment of Manager and Controller
    ARTICLE 71-(Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) Unless otherwise is arranged in the
    management plan, a manager and a controller are assigned by the board of block
    49
    condominium owners for the block, condominium owners at the parcel on which are nonblock
    structures for the common places and spaces which have been allocated to them, and
    board of mass building representatives for all common places, spaces and facilities within the
    scope of whole mass building.
    Block manager and controller are voted by the majority of condominium owners in the block.
    The manager and controller of the common places and facilities of non-block structures are
    voted by the majority of the condominium owners in these structures by the number and
    building plot share. And the manager and auditor of all common places, spaces and facilities
    within the scope of mass building are voted by the majority of the number of independent
    divisions represented by the managers and representatives who attend in the board of mass
    building representatives.
    Participation in Common Expenses
    ARTICLE 72-(Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) The common expenses regarding
    common places and facilities which have been allocated to common use and benefit of a
    certain structure of condominium owners of several structures are met by the condominium
    owners at these structures and the common expenses regarding common places and facilities
    which have been allocated to common use and benefit of all divisions are met by all
    condominium owners.
    The resolutions made by block condominium owners, mass building representatives, and
    temporary board of directors resolutions are within the scope of documents specified in the
    first paragraph of Article 68 of the Execution and Bankruptcy Law no. 2004.
    Condominium owners cannot avoid from paying mass building common expense share
    and advance payment to be collected declaring that they abdicate from their right of use of
    common places, spaces and facilities within the scope of mass building or claiming that these
    areas are located on another parcel or on public places or they do not need to use them
    because of the status of their independent divisions or of their own status.
    Temporary Management
    ARTICLE 73-(Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) The management plan may anticipate to
    establish a temporary board of managers to undertake the tasks and to use the authorities of
    50
    board of managers, to make required attempts and calls for the establishment of a permanent
    board of managers until the board of mass building representatives is established. In this case,
    the management plan arranges the provisions on the issues such as establishment procedures
    and task period of temporary management. Temporary management may last by one year
    from the completion of mass building at the latest. This period cannot be longer than ten years
    from the obtainment of first occupancy certificate within the scope of mass building, in any
    case.
    Other Provisions to Be Applied
    ARTICLE 74-(Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 22.) Save for the special provisions
    anticipated in this section, all provisions within the scope of this Law are also applied to the
    mass buildings in the same way or by analogy.”
    Competent court
    Supplementary ARTICLE 1.(Inserted: 13/4/1983-2814/art. 15) – All the disputes that may
    arise during enforcement of this law shall be settled in the court of common affairs.
    Evacuation of common section allocated for use
    Supplementary ARTICLE 2.(Inserted: 13/4/1983-2814/art.15) – Where a section is
    allocated to the house-porter, central heating operator, gardeners and guards and the managers
    appointed from outside, these persons are obliged to evacuate the sections allocated to them
    within fifteen days upon cancellation or termination of the contracts by the condominium
    owners’ board or the manager authorized by this board. If the place is not evacuated within
    the specified period, intervention of the security forces is demanded and the place is
    evacuated within one week pursuant to the decision of territorial governor, which is taken
    upon application of the manager or any one of the flat co-owners. In such a case, there is no
    need to execute further transaction or to send a warning notification. The filing of an appeal to
    the administrative authorities or the court may not suppress enforcement of the decisions
    taken in this respect. The rights of the concerned parties arising out of the laws and the
    contract are hereby reserved.
    51
    Special provisions covering more than one building
    Supplementary ARTICLE 3– (Inserted: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art 15.; Abolished: 14/11/2007-
    5711/art 24.)
    Transformation to construction servitude
    Supplementary ARTICLE 4. – (Inserted: 13/4/1983 – 2814/art 15) Where a plot is jointly
    acquired by five or more persons to construct a building (s) and in case of opposition of 4/5 of
    the shareholders to the decision taken for transformation to construction servitude, the court
    may decide cancellation of the shares of the opponent shareholders in the property and
    registration of these shares in the name of the other shareholders willing to purchase these
    shares under the following conditions:
    a) If it is proved that the collective property is acquired for the purpose stated above,
    b) If not complied to the decision for transformation to construction servitude by the majority
    stated above, or failed to fulfil the liabilities in this respect within two months despite the
    notification sent by the notary public.
    If the current value of the shares of the co-owners opposing the court decision is deposited in
    the cash office of the court as determined by the court.
    TEMPORARY ARTICLE 1-
    (Inserted: 14/11/2007-5711/art 23.)In the main properties whose construction servitude has
    been established and the buildings on it have been completed and their occupancy certificates
    have been arranged before effectiveness date of this Law, converting into the condominium
    ownership is necessary in two years from the effective date of the Law. As per these
    buildings, the taxes, fees, and charges which accrued from the date of occupancy certificate
    are collected without any charge for being late during the transactions to convert into
    condominium ownership. Although one of construction servitude right owners or manager has
    52
    made written notification to each construction servitude right owner to complete the irregular
    documents required for establishment of condominium ownership, each construction
    servitude right owner who has not fulfilled these requirements will be punished with the
    administrative pecuniary penalty at the amount of one thousand Turkish Liras by the
    municipality if the main property is within the boundaries of municipality or relevant
    authority if it is out of the boundaries of municipality.
    Date of enforcement
    ARTICLE 75. – This law shall come into force six months after the date of its publication.
    G) Body in charge of enforcement
    ARTICLE 76. – The provisions of this law shall be enforced by the Council of Ministers.
    TEMPORARY ARTICLES WHICH HAVE NOT BEEN ENTERED INTO THE LAW
    NO 634 DATED 23/6/1965
    1)Temporary articles of the Law no. 2814 dated 13/4/1983
    Construction servitude right which have not been deleted:
    TEMPORARY ARTICLE 1-If construction servitudes related to the buildings which have not
    been completed on the building plot to which is referred in construction servitude, within the
    specified time before the enforcement of this Law, the provision of article 49 which has been
    amended by this Law is applied.
    Files brought before:
    TEMPORARY ARTICLE 2-Files brought into by civil court of first instance before the
    enforcement of this Law due to conflicts resulting from the Law on Condominium no. 634
    shall be settled by the same courts.
    53
    2)Temporary article of the Law no. 3370 dated 5/2/1992:
    TEMPORARY ARTICLE-The authority to pass decree laws entitled to the Board of
    Ministers through the Law on Authority Related to making Amendments in Some of the Laws
    on the Use of natural Gas shall be valid until the end of the time granted by the said law on
    Authority for the Law on Condominium no. 634.
    3)Temporary articles of the Law no. 5711 dated 14/11/2007
    TEMPORARY ARTICLE 1- The Regulation which should be arranged in accordance with
    this Law shall be arranged in six months from the effective date of the Law.
    TEMPORARY ARTICLE 2- Even there is not a management plan at the buildings whose
    construction servitudes have been established before the effective date of the Law no. 2814
    and dd. 13/4/1983, the condominium ownership is established according to the provisions of
    Article 12.
    TEMPORARY ARTICLE 3- The management plans of mass buildings established before
    the effective date of this Law shall be adapted to the provisions of this Law in six months
    from effective date. For any change to be made in the management plan for consistency with
    this law, the majority votes of existing board of condominium owners shall be sufficient.
    Existing mass building managements continue their tasks as temporary managements until the
    management plan is changed and manager is assigned in accordance with this new plan. The
    manager of mass building is voted in three months following the change of the management
    plan.
    (1) Article 57 related with the “Date of enforcement” has been remunerated as 66 and article
    58 related with “Body in charge of enforcement” has been remunerated as 67 by the first
    article of the Law no. 3227 dated 10/6/1985.
    (2)Articles 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74 have been added under “Part Nine” entitled
    “Special Provisions Regarding Mass Buildings” after the article 65 and articles 66 and 67
    have been amended as articles 75 and 76 by the article 22 of the Law no. 5711 dated
    14/11/2007.

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